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Acute Myeloid Leukemia





Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

  • 15 - 20% of all cases of leukemia in children and adolescents.
  • Responsible for more than one third of the deaths from leukemia


Heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancies:

  • Genetic damage to single bone marrow cell
  • Uncontrolled proliferation of blasts
  • Decreased production of normal cells
  • Accumulation of blasts in body organs/tissues


Outcome with treatment is much improved from 30 years ago. Now more than 50% of children with AML will be cured.  This has been achieved using clinical trials, treatment intensification and improved supportive care - but the outlook is still not as good as for children with ALL.


Incidence of AML:

Proportion of Pediatric Leukemias

15 - 20%

Highest Incidence

First 2 years of life, but stable throughout childhood

Racial Bias

Increased in children from Asian/Pacific island origin

Gender Bias


Down Syndrome

Risk 20 fold higher





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