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General Pediatric Oncology Overview





It is fair to say that we do not understand the cause of most childhood cancers.

An increased risk of childhood cancer is associated with underlying genetic conditions, exposure to radiation, toxins and infections.


Some different examples of factors associated with an increased risk of pediatric tumors:




Epstein-Barr virus and Burkitts lymphoma in Africa, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Hodgkin lymphoma.

Inherited condition

Down Syndrome and ALL, AML myelodysplasia

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1)and optic nerve gliomas, acoustic neuromas, AML and malignant nerve sheath tumors
Tuberous Sclerosis and brain tumors
Congenital immunodeficiency syndrome and lymphoma
Bilateral Retinoblastoma and osteogenic sarcoma
Li-Fraumeni syndrome and rhabdomyosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, breast cancer and brain tumors.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Wilms tumor
Aniridia and Wilms tumor

Radiation Exposure

Radiation therapy (RT)

Children who receive low dose cranial RT for ALL have an increased risk of subsequent brain tumors and thyroid cancers.

High dose RT in the treatment of cancer is associated with an increased risk of second malignancies many years later (usually sarcomas)


Radiation Exposure from atomic bomb

was associated with an increased risk of leukemias and second malignancies



Alkylating agents and Epipodophyllotoxins are associated with an increased risk of AML


Cryptorchidism is associated with an increased risk of testicular tumors

Immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of lympho-proliferative disease


See also the different factors that be associated with pediatric brain tumors.

Causes of pediatric Brain Tumor


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