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Febrile Neutropenia


  1. Hann I, Viscoli C, Paesmans M, et al. A comparison of outcome from febrile neutropenic episodes in children compared with adults: results from four EORTC studies. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group (IATCG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Br J Haematol. 1997;99:580-8.
  2. Chamberlain JD, Smibert E, Skeen J, et al. Prospective audit of treatment of paediatric febrile neutropenia in Australasia. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2005;41:598-603.
  3. Hughes WT, Armstrong D, Bodey GP, et al. 2002 guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2002;34:730-751.
  4. Ammann RA, Aebi C, Hirt A, et al. Fever in neutropenia in children and adolescents: Evolution over time of main characteristics in a single center, 1993-2001. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2004;12:826-832.
  5. Connell TG, Rele M, Cowley D, et al. How reliable is a negative blood culture result? Volume of blood submitted for culture in routine practice in a children's hospital. Pediatrics. 2007;119:891-6.
  6. Paulus SC, van Saene HKF, Hemsworth S, et al. A prospective study of septicaemia on a paediatric oncology unit: A three-year experience at The Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital, Alder Hey, UK. European Journal of Cancer. 2005;41:2132-2140.
  7. Paul M, Soares-Weiser K, Grozinsky S, et al. Beta-lactam versus beta-lactam-aminoglycoside combination therapy in cancer patients with neutropaenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;CD003038.
  8. Agaoglu L, Devecioglu O, Anak S, et al. Cost-effectiveness of cefepime plus netilmicin or ceftazidime plus amikacin or meropenem monotherapy in febrile neutropenic children with malignancy in Turkey. Journal of Chemotherapy. 2001;13:281-287.
  9. Duzova A, Kutluk T, Kanra G, et al. Monotherapy with meropenem versus combination therapy with piperacillin plus amikacin as empiric therapy for neutropenic fever in children with lymphoma and solid tumors. Turk J Pediatr. 2001;43:105-9.
  10. Hung KC, Chiu HH, Tseng YC, et al. Monotherapy with meropenem versus combination therapy with ceftazidime plus amikacin as empirical therapy for neutropenic fever in children with malignancy. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2003;36:254-9.
  11. Ariffin H, Ai CL, Lee CL, et al. Cefepime monotherapy for treatment of febrile neutropenia in children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2006;42:781-784.
  12. Granowetter L, Wells H and Lange BJ. Ceftazidime with or without vancomycin vs. cephalothin, carbenicillin and gentamicin as the initial therapy of the febrile neutropenic pediatric cancer patient. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988;7:165-70.
  13. Charnas R, Luthi AR and Ruch W. Once daily ceftriaxone plus amikacin vs. three times daily ceftazidime plus amikacin for treatment of febrile neutropenic children with cancer. Writing Committee for the International Collaboration on Antimicrobial Treatment of Febrile Neutropenia in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16:346-53.
  14. Ariffin H, Arasu A, Mahfuzah M, et al. Single-daily ceftriaxone plus amikacin versus thrice-daily ceftazidime plus amikacin as empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia in children with cancer. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2001;37:38-43.
  15. Chastagner P, Plouvier E, Eyer D, et al. Efficacy of cefepime and amikacin in the empiric treatment of febrile neutropenic children with cancer. Medical and Pediatric Oncology. 2000;34:306-308.
  16. Owens CO, CA; Holloway WJ. Reduction in Vancomycin consumption in patients with fever and neutropenia [abstract 458]. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2000;31:291.
  17. Yahav D, Paul M, Fraser A, et al. Efficacy and safety of cefepime: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:338-48.
  18. Cometta A, Calandra T, Gaya H, et al. Monotherapy with meropenem versus combination therapy with ceftazidime plus amikacin as empiric therapy for fever in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. The International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell'Adulto Infection Program. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996;40:1108-15.
  19. Fleischhack G, Hartmann C, Simon A, et al. Meropenem versus ceftazidime as empirical monotherapy in febrile neutropenia of paediatric patients with cancer. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2001;47:841-853.
  20. Corapcioglu F, Sarper N and Zengin E. Monotherapy with piperacillin/tazobactam versus cefepime as empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia in pediatric cancer patients: A randomized comparison. Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. 2006;23:177-186.
  21. Fouyssac F, Salmon A, Mansuy L, et al. Treatment of febrile neutropenia episodes in children, with a piperacillin-tazobactam and netilmicin combination. Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses. 2005;35:357-362.
  22. Le Guyader N, Auvrignon A, Vu-Thien H, et al. Piperacillin-tazobactam and netilmicin as a safe and efficacious empirical treatment of febrile neutropenic children. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2004;12:720-724.
  23. Quezada G, Sunderland T, Chan KW, et al. Medical and non-medical barriers to outpatient treatment of fever and neutropenia in children with cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer. 2007;48:273-277.
  24. Caillot D, Casasnovas O, Bernard A, et al. Improved management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in neutropenic patients using early thoracic computed tomographic scan and surgery. J Clin Oncol. 1997;15:139-47.
  25. Hauggaard A, Ellis M and Ekelund L. Early chest radiography and CT in the diagnosis, management and outcome of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Acta Radiol. 2002;43:292-8.
  26. Hoffer FA, Gow K, Flynn PM, et al. Accuracy of percutaneous lung biopsy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Pediatr Radiol. 2001;31:144-52.
  27. Gamis AS, Howells WB, DeSwarte-Wallace J, et al. Alpha hemolytic streptococcal infection during intensive treatment for acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's cancer group study CCG-2891. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:1845-55.
  28. Lehrnbecher T, Varwig D, Kaiser J, et al. Infectious complications in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: analysis of the prospective multi-institutional clinical trial AML-BFM 93. Leukemia. 2004;18:72-7.
  29. Okamoto Y, Ribeiro RC, Srivastava DK, et al. Viridans streptococcal sepsis: Clinical features and complications in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology. 2003;25:696-703.
  30. Paganini H, Staffolani V, Zubizarreta P, et al. Viridans streptococci bacteraemia in children with fever and neutropenia: a case-control study of predisposing factors. Eur J Cancer. 2003;39:1284-9.
  31. Ihendyane N, Sparrelid E, Wretlind B, et al. Viridans streptococcal septicaemia in neutropenic patients: role of proinflammatory cytokines. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004;33:79-85.
  32. Bruckner L and Gigliotti F. Alpha-hemolytic streptococcal infections among immunocompromised hosts: Increasing incidence, severity and antibiotic resistance. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2002;21:343-345.
  33. Kennedy HF, Gemmell CG, Bagg J, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of blood culture isolates of viridans streptococci: relationship to a change in empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001;47:693-6.
  34. Ariffin H, Navaratnam P, Mohamed M, et al. Ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection in children with febrile neutropenia. Int J Infect Dis. 2000;4:21-5.
  35. Nourse C, Murphy H, Byrne C, et al. Control of a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium in a paediatric oncology unit: risk factors for colonisation. Eur J Pediatr. 1998;157:20-7.
  36. Gray JW and George RH. Experience of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a children's hospital. J Hosp Infect. 2000;45:11-8.
  37. Schuster F, Graubner UB, Schmid I, et al. Vancomycin-resistant-enterococci--colonization of 24 patients on a pediatric oncology unit. Klin Padiatr. 1998;210:261-3.



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